Bariatric surgery – obesity surgery

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Overview

Bariatric surgery involves surgical procedures through which you can lose weight or bypass procedure in the stomach or small intestine. With its help people who are overweight can lose some weight significantly and permanently.

Through gastric bypass and other surgeries, will be some changes in the digestive system in order to reduce the number of pounds by limiting the amount of food ingested or reducing absorption of nutrients, or both.

Gastric bypass and other weight loss surgery will be performed when diet and exercise have not worked or when the person in question has serious health problems due to weight.


Contents

1. Overview
2. Gastric bypass
3. Purpose
4. Description
5. Ways to care after surgery
6. Risks


Gastric bypass

Gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgery procedures. Many surgeons prefer gastric bypass surgery because in its case occur fewer complications than other weight loss surgeries.

All forms of weight loss surgery, including gastric bypass, are major procedures that may have serious risks and side effects. Also, it requires permanent changes in diet and conducting regular exercise to ensure long-term success of bariatric surgery.


Purpose

Bariatric surgery is performed only for overweight people who weigh more than twice than ideal. This level of obesity is often referred to as morbid obesity because it can cause more serious health problems, including some potentially deadly diseases (hypertension, type II diabetes, increased risk for coronary disease, increased unexplained heart attack risk event and there is a higher prevalence of developing breast cancer, colon and prostate).

The researchers concluded that obesity surgery can cure type II diabetes in people who don’t suffer yet from morbid obesity. Therefore, these surgeries are also recommended for people whose risk of surgical complications is offset by the need to lose weight, because reducing the number of pounds could prevent worsening some disease.

In these patients, weight loss will be treatment solution if the results of the weight loss and exercise were not expected. Surgery to treat obesity doesn’t do wonders or thinner silhouettes. Most people lose about 60% of excess weight, but dietary changes and exercise are still necessary to maintain normal weight.

Obesity surgery’s underlying theory is that if stomach volume is reduced and part of the small intestine is changed or shortened bowel movements will be slower. After bariatric surgery, the amount of food the stomach can hold it is reduced from about four cups to a half cup.


Description

Surgery for obesity treatment is performed in hospital by a surgeon who has experience in this field. It uses general anesthesia and surgery takes about 2-3 hours. The patient will be hospitalized for a week.

There are three types of surgical procedures that are included in bariatric surgery:

- Gastric bypass – this is the most common type of obesity surgery. In this procedure, the stomach volume is reduced by four rows of staples and a stainless ring, which will separate the main body of the stomach forming a small gastric pouch. The bag is located at one end of the esophagus. At the other end opening to the small intestine will be thinned. Food will travel through bypassing, detouring the main part of the stomach and it will be slowly emptied in the small intestine where they will be absorbed.

- Vertical banded gastroplasty surgery – within this procedure creates an artificial bag from another section of the stomach, using special staples. A vertical band will be sutured around the pocket to prevent its expansion.

- Jejunoileal bypass – is a rarely performed technique that involves shortening the small intestine. Because of the risk of serious complications involving chronic diarrhea and liver disease, this procedure was abandoned in favor of other safer procedures.


Ways to care after surgery

Immediately after surgery, most of the patients will be limited to a liquid diet for 2-3 weeks. Then it will move to mashed food diet, which will last approximately one month and after two months, most can tolerate solid foods.

The high-fat food consumption will be limited because they are difficult to digest and cause diarrhea. Patients should change their dietary habits and do exercises to actively help in weight loss. Most of the people can eat 3-4 small meals a day, once they returned to solid foods.

Eating quickly or too much food after bariatric surgery can cause vomiting, nausea as well as intestinal dumping, a condition in which undigested products penetrate too quickly into the small intestine causing pain, diarrhea, weakness and dizziness.


Risks

Possibility of complications during surgery for gastric bypass may increases with age in both women and men, but also according to weight.

Patients over 55 years experienced more complications than those who were younger; male suffered more life-threatening complications that than female patients, and the risk increased as weight was higher.

Most people lose about 60% to reach their ideal weight through obesity surgery. However, success depends on the willingness of the patient to have a low calorie diet and do exercise.

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