Chronic Laryngitis – Laryngeal Obstruction

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CHRONIC LARYNGITIS

It is a chronic inflammation of larynx.

Aetiology: (1) Recurrent acute laryngitis. (2) Excessive smoking. (3) Chronic sinus and oral infection. (4) Too much shouting (as in hawkers). (5) Nasal obstruction. (6) Sometimes chronic alcoholism.

Clinical Pictures: (I) Loss of voice (aphonia). (2) Sore throat. (3) Spasmodic cough with little sputum.

Treatment: (1) Avoid of smoking. (2) Rest to the voice. (3) Management of predisposing factor (if present). (4) Steam inhalation with benzoin and menthol.

LARYNGEAL OBSTRUCTION

Laryngeal obstruction is more liable to occur in children than in adults because of the smaller size of the glottis; (opening). It may be complete or incomplete.

Aetiology: (1) Inflammatory or allergic edema or exudates (e. g. diphtheria). (2) Spasm of the laryngeal muscles.

(3) Inhaled foreign body. (4) Inhaled vomitus in an unconscious patient. (5) Tumors of the larynx (carcinoma). (6) Bilateral vocal cord paralysis. (7) Fixation of both cords in advanced rheumatoid arthritis. (8) Hanging and throttling; Cellulitis and burns of the neck.

Clinical Features: (1) In case of complete obstruction — a) acute asphyxia, (b) deep cyanosis, (c) rapid coma, (d) death within 5 to 10 minutes. (2) In case of incomplete obstruction — progressive dyspnoea and cyanosis, strider and in drawing of the intercostals spaces and lower ribs on both sides. (The great danger in this case is that the obstruction may at any time become complete and result in sudden death.

Treatment: (1) Treatment of the cause, e. g. in cases of diphtheria, antitoxin should be administered and for other infections the appropriate antibiotic should be given. (2) The relief of obstruction by mechanical means.

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