Coagulase Negative Staphylococci – Staphylococcus Epidermis

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Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the genus staphylococcus and is a part of  human flora found in the mucous membrane.They are usually not pathogenic in nature and found in warm blooded .People who are having  a weak immune system are at the risk of getting infected.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram positive bacteria and is aerobic as well as anaerobic in respiration.

While going through various resources I found that according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Nosocomial infection surveillance system; 33.5% of blood stream infections are caused due to Staphylococcus epidermidis .

Diagnosis of S.Epidermidis

To diagnose S.Epidermidis swabs/blood samples of the patients are collected and sent to lab.S.Epidermidis is negative in coagulase negative in nature.

What are Coagulase Negative Staphylococci

Coagulase Negative Staphylococci are those Staph bacteria which do not coagulate during coagulase enzyme test and S.Epidermidis is a coagulase negative staphylococci where as S.Aureus is a positive one.

Symptoms of  S. Epidermidis Infection

Urinary tract infection: This is often found in hospitalized patients who are usually more than 50 years of age and it affects both men and women.

Eye infection: S.Epidermidis causes conjunctivitis or keratitis.

Skin Infections: S.Epidermidis may cause skin infections.

Endocarditis: Patients having a heart disease can get Endocarditis after surgery due to infection.

Infection due to medical instruments: Most common cause of S.Epidermidis is infection associated with intravascular catheter.

Sepsis: It is a life threatening disease which infects patients who are under long term antibiotic treatment.

How does S.Epidermidis spreads?

S.Epidermidis spreads due to physical contact with the infected person and it commonly gets infected in hospitalized patients.

Who are prone to S.Epidermidis infection?

Patients who are having low immune system due to cancer or AIDS are at a high rate of getting infected with S.Epidermidis.

Those who are suffering from skin diseases.

Patients suffering from heart disease or from urinary catheters.

S. Epidermidis Antibiotic Resistance

There has been a drastic increase in the case of S.Epidermidis over the years and since the antibiotics have been used on a large scale it has developed a resistance towards a lot of antibiotics.

Biofilm and S. Epidermidis Resistance to Macrophages

A biofilm is formed when S.Epidermidis settles on medical instruments which forms a thin layer and hence it is protected from immune system and from antibiotics. The infections then become more serious.

Treatment of S.Epidermidis

S.Epidermidis is mostly resistant to antibiotics. However certain antibiotics like vancomycin, rifampin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are effective. Medical devices such as venous catheters, heart valves which are infected should be removed.

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