Common Respiratory Symptoms

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COMMON RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS

(1) Cough. (2) Expectoration. (3) Hemoptysis. (4) Chest pain. (5) Dyspnoea.

COMMON RESPIRATORY SIGNS

General: (I) Cyanosis. (2) Hypercapnia. (3) Clubbing of fingers and toes.

Chest Signs: (1) Diminution of movement. (2) Mediastinal displacement. (3) Altered percussion note. (4) Abnormal breath sounds. (5) Adventitious sounds. (6) Altered vocal resonance,

ACUTE CORYZA (The Common Cold)

Definition: Inflammation and infection of the nose and naso-pharynx by a number of viruses with or without low grade pyrexia lasting for few days.

Aetiology: Rhino-viruses or Echo-viruses. Subsequent bacterial infection by streptococcus, pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Staphylococci is usual. Incubation period: 1 to 3 days.

Clinical Features: (I) usually sudden onset. (2) Tickling sensation in the nose. (3) Sneezing. (4) Sore throat. (5) Malaise and sometimes slight temperature. (6) Watery nasal discharge. (7) Headache and pain over the sinuses may be present. These symptoms may persist for a few days. Coryza may be complicated by sinusitis, nasal obstruction or infections of the lower respiratory tract, catarrh of the auditory tubes causing deafness and otitis media etc.

Prognosis: Good. Immunity is short lasting, second attack may occur any time.

Treatment: (I) Rest. (2) Control of infection. (3) Symptomatic treatment.

ACUTE SINUSITIS

Definition: Acute inflammation of lining of the nasal sinuses is known as sinusitis.

Causes: In most cases due to upper respiratory tract infection, in case of severe infection one or more sinuses may be inflamed. It may also result from infected germs enter into a sinus and this often causes acute and dangerous frontal sinusitis.

Clinical Pictures: (1) Heaviness on the face and head, sometimes copious discharge may be present. (2) Headache mild to severe may be present

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