Diseases associated with obesity

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1. Obesity and type 2 diabetes


Over 80% of people with type 2 diabetes (the most common form of diabetes) are obese or overweight. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin in the blood or when cells do not use insulin produced properly.

Obesity decreases the ability of insulin to control blood sugar, so there is a high risk to trigger diabetes because the body begins to produce excessive amounts of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels without being able to keep the blood sugar in normal limits.


Contents

1. Obesity and type 2 diabetes
2. Obesity and heart disease
3. Obesity and hypertension
4. Obesity and metabolic syndrome
5. Obesity and cancer
6. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome
7. Obesity and reproduction – sexuality
8. Obesity and dyslipidemia
9. Childhood obesity
10. Obesity and thyroid disorders


2. Obesity and heart disease

Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk of developing heart disease, being prone to heart attack, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death or angina. In addition, they have an abnormal heart rhythm compared to those with a healthier body mass index.

Obesity contributes to heart disease risk tripping due to the negative effect of increased blood lipid levels, high triglyceride levels and decreases the high density lipoprotein (good cholesterol).

People with an excessive amount of body fat have higher levels of low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride (bad cholesterol). These factors determine the presence of favorable conditions for development of heart disease.


3. Obesity and hypertension

Blood pressure is the force with which blood is pushed against artery walls through which it flows. High blood pressure greatly increases the risk of heart attack, stroke or kidney failure.

Overweight and obesity increase the risk of hypertension. In fact, blood pressure increases with increasing body weight. Losing even a few pounds can decrease the values of blood pressure.


4. Obesity and metabolic syndrome

Obesity has a negative impact on the endocrine system and cause metabolic disorders. In fact, one in five overweight people is affected by metabolic syndrome or syndrome X26.

Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems such as obesity, hypertension, abnormal lipid levels and high blood sugar values. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome and other conditions are at high risk of developing metabolic syndrome.


5. Obesity and cancer

Several types of cancer are associated with being overweight. Obesity increases the risk of developing but also death from cancer. Cancer of colon, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, kidney, esophagus are associated with obesity.

Some studies have reported the link between obesity and cancer of the gallbladder, ovaries and pancreas. For some cancers, such as colon or breast, it cannot be said with certainty whether the increased risk is influenced by excess weight or high levels of fat from the high-calories diet.


6. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome

Most people diagnosed with PCOS are overweight women aged over 35 years. This syndrome is associated with accumulation of incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries and is characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, multiple ovarian cysts and excessive hair growth.

This syndrome is a leading cause of infertility and is a significant cause of insulin resistance, so a major factor in enhancing a woman’s risk of developing diabetes.

Including overweight adolescents are prone to this syndrome. Excessive amounts of insulin in the blood and overweight are associated with this syndrome, especially among teenagers. Common features found in pre-teens and adults are excessive hair growth, irregular menstruation, cystic or non- cystic acne.


7. Obesity and reproduction – sexuality

Obesity in men was associated with reproductive hormonal disorders, sexual dysfunction and infertility. In women who suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity can compromise reproductive function.


8. Obesity and dyslipidemia

As a result of obesity, blood lipid levels is increased, and this often involves the development of dyslipidemia, contributing to the development of coronary heart disease (bad cholesterol levels are high and good cholesterol is low).

Weight loss, on the contrary, has the opposite effect. Losing of about 4-5 kilograms can cause:
- Lowering bad cholesterol by 15%;
- Decrease triglycerides by 30%;
- Increasing good cholesterol by 8%.


9. Childhood obesity

Obesity in children is increasing in many countries triggering many complications of liver, lungs, heart and also musculoskeletal and psychological complications.

Changing lifestyle is the most effective treatment but also the most difficult to implement. Due to the large number of cases of childhood obesity, many teenagers turn to surgery that involves inserting a gastric ring.


10. Obesity and thyroid disorders

Thyroid hormones affect metabolism thus is often assumed that there is a direct link between obesity and thyroid gland. It is true that individuals who have an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) will usually lose weight, and those with poorly functioning thyroid (hypothyroidism) will tend to gain weight, but direct and strong correlation between obesity and thyroid function deficit is uncertain and medical literature offers conflicting conclusions.

In some studies, the thyroid function in obese individuals is perfectly normal compared to those with normal weight, while other studies demonstrate a mild to moderate frequency of hypothyroidism in obese children and adults. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between brain-thyroid axis, metabolic syndrome, thyroid dysfunction and obesity.

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