Dyspraxia

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Overview

Development dyspraxia is impairment or immaturity of planning and coordination of movements. Immaturity is expressed by the fact that information is processed by the brain, but the messages are not properly or fully transmitted to the body.

The term dyspraxia comes from the word praxis – to do, to act. Dyspraxia affects the planning of both the mode of action but what should a person do.

This is accompanied by disturbances in perception, language and thought. Dyspraxia affects even over 10% of the population and 2% for the manifested form of dyspraxia is quite serious. Men are four times more affected than women.


Contents

1. Overview
2. Signs and symptoms of dyspraxia
3. Causes of dyspraxia
4. Diagnosis
5. Diagnostic criteria
6. Treatment


Signs and symptoms of dyspraxia

1. In the early years of a child are seen following symptoms: the child may need more time than other children to go to crawl, to walk, talk, stand up, to use the potty, to enrich their vocabulary, to speak clearly and articulately.

2. In early childhood can occur some certain obvious difficulties:

- difficulty in making some subtle movements,
- many children will have difficulty dressing,
- problems related to movements in the game (involved in jumping, hopscotch, catching a ball, kicking a ball, jumping over obstacles),
- problems in the execution time requirements of practical teaching activities,
- difficulty processing thoughts,
- difficulty concentrating,
- your baby will have more problems than other children to engage in games,
- some children will find it hard to climb and descend stairs,
- tend to hit things, to fall over objects,
- occurs new difficulties in learning and skills.

The following features of dyspraxia are common to preschool children:

- believe that it is hard to keep their friends,
- have unusual behavior in the company of others,
- hesitant in most actions,
- seems to be slow,
- don’t keep the pencil in the hand with a proper grip,
- it is difficult to understand and perform some concepts such as indoors or outdoors.

3. In late childhood, the above problems do not improve nor is easier for children with dyspraxia who fail to automatically filter out the irrelevant stimulus, they meet difficulty in math and writing, spending time to write, do not follow instructions , do not remember the instructions, are not well organized.


Causes of dyspraxia

Dyspraxia can be caused by improper development of motor neurons in the brain. Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells that transmit signals from the brain to the muscles, allowing them to move.

It is believed that motor neurons in people with dyspraxia fail to form proper connections and are less efficient in transmitting electrical signals from the brain to muscles. Sometimes not even reach the electrical signal from the brain to the muscles, the muscles can’t respond to the requirement to make certain moves brain.


Diagnosis

If suspected dyspraxia, health professionals will evaluate your child. Evaluation usually involves:

a. History of child development
b. Carry out tests which will consider:

- the child’s gross and fine motor skills
- ability to use large muscles that coordinate body movements (walking, jumping, maintaining balance, throwing),
- fine motor skills
- ability to use small muscles to coordinate precise movements.

These skills will be tested through physical activities that will be involved in various physical activities such as throwing the ball or use handwriting. Experts can determine if the child’s intellectual and motor skills are abnormal for what is expected of his age.


Diagnostic criteria

Dyspraxia can be diagnosed by using the following criteria:
- Child’s motor skills are well below expected for his age and intelligence
- Impaired movement affects the daily activities of children’s and school performance
- This problem is not caused by another medical condition such as cerebral palsy
- If the child has difficulty learning and his skills of driving is getting worse rather than for a person with learning difficulties.

A child may be diagnosed with dyspraxia if he fit the criteria above.


Treatment

1. Occupational therapy – This therapy involves identifying problem areas in daily life of the child and develops practical solutions. The therapist will follow your child home from school, while playing to identify its problems. For example your child may encounter difficulties when:

- Dress
- Walk to bus stop
- Use knife and fork
- Ride a bicycle
- Write.

The therapist will then set specific solutions to problems, like using small steps to move and exercise certain movements.

2. Therapy for speech and language development – Dyspraxia affects coordination, including the muscles, and speech. Therapy for speech and language development can be useful when the child has difficulty in communicating and speaking. Child may:

- Can’t pronounce certain sounds or letters such as T or D
- To omit certain parts of words
- To speak too slowly or too fast.
- Talking too loud or too quiet.

During therapy, speech specialists evaluate the child, identify his problems, they will help him improve his communication skills. In this purpose they will organize a program to meet the needs of children that could involve:

- Exercises involving certain movements of the lips or tongue
- Production of certain sounds
- Methods of breath control.

With speech development therapy, the child may learn to manage his disabilities.

3. Therapy to improve motor skills – This involves a set of tasks covering:

- Language skills
- Visual and auditory skills
- Powers of movement.

The doctor will provide gradually to your baby a series of exercises that are designed to develop these skills. Each exercise is a bit difficult to challenge the child, but not so difficult to frustrate him.

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