Hemorrhoids – risk factors

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Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins located in the lower rectum and anus. They swell due to increased pressure on them, usually after straining during elimination feces.

Another reason would be enlarged uterus pressure on hemorrhoids, in the last trimesters.


1. Overview
2. Age
3. Alcohol
4. Anal sex
5. Caffeine
6. Chronic prostatitis
7. Cirrhosis and liver disease
8. A diet low in fiber
9. Episiotomy
10. Skipping breakfast
11. Heredity or genetics
12. Increased intra-abdominal pressure
13. Irregular bowel habits
14. Lack of exercise or sedentary lifestyle
15. Insufficient hydration
16. Low fat and fiber diet
17. Obesity
18. Improper anal hygiene
19. Pregnancy and childbirth
20. Smoking


Constituent fibers of the anal sphincter muscles are part of a net of connective tissue that holds muscle fibers, anal mucosa and anal canal. Studies have shown that when people progresses in age, the ratio of connective tissue and muscular increases.

It is believed that this change of ratio increase sphincter weakness and anal mucosa and tends to encourage the anal cushions to expand from the anal forming hemorrhoids. The supportive tissue damage occurs when an individual reaches the age of 30 years.


The alcohol is a diuretic, which means it encourages the body to eliminate more water than necessary. It works by stopping production of antidiuretic hormone and the person will feel the need to urinate more often and become dehydrated. Also, alcohol absorbs water from the stool, which can cause dry seat and trigger constipation.

In addition, excessive alcohol consumption can lead to diarrhea, a contributor to the formation of hemorrhoids. Alcohol-induced diarrhea is the body’s response to the introduction of toxins into the body, alcohol is toxic to living tissues in the body.

Anal sex

Function of the rectum and anal canal, and support the surrounding tissue is to hold and push the feces outside the body. This complex action may involve easily damage of the sensitive tissue by the hard feces.

Anal sex requires constant and unnatural action of penetration of the rectum and anus. Tissue is subjected to pressure and force in a direction that is not designed, and the risk of injuries is high. In addition, anal intercourse can damage tissues, including damage to structures supporting the anal cushions. This act encourages the formation of hemorrhoids. To prevent this inconvenience can be used lubricant for anal sex.


Caffeine consumed in excess can worsen or give rise to hemorrhoids in two ways. First, caffeine is a diuretic, which means that it will encourage the elimination of urine, leaving less water available in the feces. Thus, the excrements will strengthen and there is an increased risk of constipation. Reinforced feces will go through anal cushions weakened, through the anal canal.

This will contribute to increased damage to connective tissues that support the anal cushions and the surface of the hemorrhoid tissue damage, bleeding taking place. Caffeine increases blood flow, resulting in extension veins and increased vascular pressure. As such it amplifies the risk of hemorrhoids. Examples of food sources that contain caffeine are coffee, soft drinks, tea, energy drinks and chocolate.

Chronic prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis or an enlarged prostate was associated with a higher incidence of developing hemorrhoids. In one study, growth was 45%. In the same study found an increase of 300% of the testicular veins. Obviously, the swollen veins influence the veins that irrigate hemorrhoidal tissues, but can’t say if enlarged prostate is directly responsible for such an increase in size of the testicular vein.

Cirrhosis and liver disease

Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver was damaged from alcohol, chronic hepatitis C and obesity. Since blood returning from the anorectal tissues is processed by the liver, any obstacle will cause a counter-pressure on the vascular structures of the hemorrhoids.

This backpressure results from portal hypertension. This condition reduces the veins ability to maintain shape and size and encourages inflammation of veins. Although portal hypertension isn’t considered the mechanism by which forms the hemorrhoids, it has a role in vascular health. Since hemorrhoids are inflamed veins and varicose, liver cirrhosis is considered to have a contribution on them. Any liver disease will cause similar conditions and it will contribute to problems like hemorrhoids.

A diet low in fiber

Consistency of the feces is a crucial indicator of hemorrhoid formation and irritation. For people who keep constant diet low in fiber is probable to grow larger hemorrhoids and hemorrhoidal symptoms. The fibers are composed of complex carbohydrates that are not easily digested, absorbed water and soft feces, this becoming more easily to remove without traumatizing the tissues of the rectum and anal canal.

Because it is considered that an important role in the development of hemorrhoids it has reinforced excrements, which opposes the pressure on the supporting structures of the anal cushions, a diet rich in fiber consumption accompanied by the liquid is very important in order to avoid hemorrhoids.


This is a medical procedure used to facilitate the child’s birth, in which will make an incision through the perineum in order to widen the vagina. Pain associated with incision’s healing may cause difficulty in eliminating feces and encourage formation of hemorrhoids.

Skipping breakfast

Controlled studies have shown a relationship between skipping breakfast and the occurrence of fissures or hemorrhoids. Following a small study found that people who do not eat breakfast have 7.5 more likely to suffer from hemorrhoids or anal fissures than those who enjoyed the first meal of the day. The reason this relationship is not clearly understood.

Heredity or genetics

Comparative studies have shown that hemorrhoids occur more often in some families than in others. However, the link between heredity, genetics and piles has not been established. It is possible that common lifestyle of family members to be a contributing factor at the development of hemorrhoids, rather than genetics.

Weak trend of vascularization can be inherited, but not confirmed a major contribution to the development of hemorrhoids.

Increased intra-abdominal pressure

Any activity that results in sudden or sustained increase in intra-abdominal pressure may precipitate formation of hemorrhoids. Lifting weights, chronic cough and straining during elimination feces are three examples commonly found. Each of these factors is pressure on the vascular network, supplying the rectum and anal canal.

The veins around the anus and anal canal are sensitive to high pressure, because they have no support structure on one side. Talking about external hemorrhoids, anal veins found under the skin will swell under the action of pressure, because in their case there is no supporting structure. Therefore, increased pressure can cause prolapse of these veins. If the pressure is chronic or sudden, it can cause vein wall weakness.

Irregular bowel habits

Recent studies show a clear link between patients suffering from chronic constipation and hemorrhoids sufferers. It has been shown that people with hemorrhoids are not necessarily constipated and those suffering from chronic constipation really should not have hemorrhoids.

However, mechanical scratching by hard feces of the anal cushions is considered a possible trigger for damage the structures that maintain the position of the anal cushions. Constipation aggravates the hemorrhoids, causing them bleeding and inflammation. Diarrhea is associated with hemorrhoids. This is determined by the co-existence with other symptoms such as bloating and cramping, which can cause straining during bowel movements.

When diarrhea becomes chronic, it is considered that the mechanism puts pressure on veins in the intestinal tissues. All these events have been found in people with irritable bowel syndrome.

Lack of exercise or sedentary lifestyle

Lack of exercise is a contributing factor to the development of hemorrhoids. Exercise, especially cardio, accelerates blood circulation. They encourage the intake of nutrients and disposal of cellular structures of the anal canal, including vascular tissues and anal cushions.

Exercise helps to improve digestion and the proper formation of the feces. There is a known correlation between lack of exercise and constipation. Therefore, constipation is more common in older people. Physical activity be rigorous or not, walking for 20 minutes being sufficient.

Insufficient hydration

Adequate hydration is essential for the health of cell structure, considering that this supports the necessary flow of nutrients and helps remove waste from every cell. This includes vascular and support structures that constitute the anal cushions.

Maintaining an adequate vascular pressure is important for proper function of these tissues. Improper hydration can lead to hardening of feces and thus constipation problems – because straining during elimination excrements.

Low fat and fiber diet

Statistically demonstrated that people who eat foods rich in fiber have more opportunities to develop small piles. Clearly, high-fiber diets are partly responsible for the decreased likelihood of getting hemorrhoids.

Fibers are responsible for enlargement of the excrements and water absorption. The result is a solid stool softer and easier to pass through the colon. This won’t damage tissues in the rectum and anal canal or anal cushions.


Obesity affects some of the factors that impact on the formation of hemorrhoids. Poor circulation is the main cause that damage cellular health and the vascular.

Increased abdominal and pelvic pressure increases pressure on veins in the anal area. This increased and sustained pressure results in adverse effects on vascular health. Obesity means lack of exercise, a sedentary lifestyle which has also negative consequences on vascular health.

Obesity is caused by an improper diet, low consumption of fiber and liquids. This obesity involves a combination of problems that has a negative impact on vascular health, increasing the chances of hemorrhoid formation.

Improper anal hygiene

Failure anal hygiene can lead to worsening of hemorrhoids. Anal tissue is very sensitive and washing it with aggressive soaps to clean it can traumatize it and will inflame existing hemorrhoids.

Appropriate would be to use natural cleaning products (not soap) to rinse the area well but gently. It will dry well and then wipe gently with a towel. It is important to dry to prevent itching and irritation of the tissue. Continuous irritation will then generate further inflammation and pain or other symptoms.

Pregnancy and childbirth

Both are clear causes of hemorrhoids. Uterine pressure and increased blood flow will lead to increased venous pressure in the rectum and anal canal, especially in the second trimester. After the birth will take place, conditions that led to excessive pressure will be eliminated and many of hemorrhoidal symptoms will be reduced or disappear.


The last, but not the least, smoking has a negative impact on vascular health, including the formation of plaque, carotid artery disease and development of peripheral arteries. It will also affect the circulatory system. Any such activity will adversely affect vascular health anal veins in the region. With a poor vascular health and improper circulation of blood, blood clots, prolapse and vascular congestion can occur.



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