Lab Tests for Staph (Staphylococcus)

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1. Taking sample of infected tissue: To diagnose the infection caused due to Staph the first thing which needs to be done is that you need to take samples of blood or urine or from the pus of the infected area. We know that only few bacteria of Staphylococcus cause toxins so it is advisable to collect more than 1 sample to diagnose the infection.

2. Gram Staining: The process of Gram Staining was being discovered by a Danish doctor named Hans Christian Gram in 1884.
<h2>The procedure of Gram staining is as follows:</h2>
A slide is smeared with bacteria and placed on a staining rack and is rinsed with Crystal violet, iodine, acetone and then water. Bacteria which are of blue, purple or violet as appears under the microscope are Gram positive while other bacteria which are of light pink are Gram negative. S.Aureus along with other Staphylococci bacteria are Gram positive.

<strong>3. Enzyme Tests:</strong>
Catalase test: Catalase test is done to find out about the species of bacteria affecting the person and the test is done using hydrogen peroxide. When a small amount of hydrogen peroxide is added to bacteria oxygen bubbles appear and it shows that Catalase is present in bacteria.

<strong>Coagulase test: </strong>Coagulase test is done to find out S.aureus from a Coagulase negative, the test is done by using rabbit plasma and if the result is positive then the serum will coagulate and form a clot and if negative it will be a liquid.

<strong>Hemolysis: </strong>Hemolysis is a Greek word which means breaking of the red blood cells and the release of the red blood cells to the area surrounding the red blood cells.Hemolysis is caused due to Gram a positive bacterium which also includes some strains of Staph bacteria.

4.Staphylococcus aureus Culture: To find about the Staph infection a sample is taken and is spread on trypticase soy agar and for the culture 16 to 18 hours is needed. S.Aureus forms golden yellow colonies while the S.Epidermis forms white colonies.
5.Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus with PCR : S.aureus bacteria is find by doing Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR).The procedure follows polymerase chain reaction. The main feature is that amplified DNA is found as the reaction progresses.
6.Staphylococcus aureus Detection Kits: Kits to find out various species of bacteria Staphylococcus are available.

For detecting MRSA in clinical samples are the Dry Spot Staphytect Plus®, the Staph Plus® test (Bio-Rad), the Slidex Staph-Kit® and Slidex Staph Plus® test (bioMérieux), the Staphaurex Plus® test (Remel) and the Staphylase Test® (Oxoid)

For food TAQMAN, GENE-TRAK, Staphylase (oxoid) and Staphylex.

Milk can be tested by performing California Mastitis test, Bulk Milk Count, Bacterial Counts, Coliform Test.

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